Getting More Flexible-An Engineering Approach

Problem Solving

Many people turn to yoga as a way of dealing with a problem or problems. For myself the problem was that I was inflexible. I turned to yoga erroneously thinking that I could do it for three months, get flexible, and then get on with what I really wanted to do (run, skate, martial arts.)

I spent five years in university to learn one simple thing. In order to fix a problem you gotta know what it is. Prior to that it helps if you understand what you are working with. If you don’t understand what you are working with or what you are trying to do then part of the problem solving process is acquiring that understanding… in other words learning.

Its ten years later… or maybe 12 (time flies) and now I’m finally getting on with what I want to do. Part of the reason it has taken me so long is that in the process of making my body more flexible I’ve also been learning to understand it. Its so much easier to fix something when you understand what you are working with. I also had to learn what flexibility was. I had to define it. Then I could work towards acquiring it.

Flexibility Defined

For this article I’ll define flexibility as the ability for a muscle or muscles to relax and to be lengthened. The part that relaxes is the belly of the muscle, which is also the same part that contracts.

When a muscle is relaxed and then lengthened (or lengthened and gradually relaxed) the connective tissue within the belly of the muscle is stretched.

Flexibility is a quality of the connective tissue with our muscles. The more pliable our connective tissue is, the more flexible we are. The better we are at controlling our muscles, being able to relax as well as contract them at will, the better we can access this flexibility.

So to stretch and improve our flexibility, part of what we need to develop is control and part of that control is the ability to relax at will.

So one part of flexibility training is learning to relax the muscles we are stretching.

Learning to Relax

Part of learning to relax is learning to feel when muscles are relaxed and when they are engaged.

We can learn to feel our muscles by using and experiencing them. As an example, if we want to learn to feel our quadriceps, the large muscle at the front of the thigh that straightens the knee and helps to flex the hip, we can practice straightening the knee and allowing it to bend.

If we do this slowly we can feel the various groups of fibers as they activate (and as they relax.) Of course to do this we have to put our awareness in our knee and thigh, we have to focus on feeling our quadriceps. (And of course to do that we need to know where our quadriceps is and where its endpoints attach to.)

If we do the movement repeatedly and slowly we can notice changes in sensation and then we can differentiate the sensations that indicate muscle activity and those that indicate that the muscle is relaxed.

Another way to see if a muscle is relaxed is to shake it. So for example, if you roll your thigh from side to side and the quadriceps are relaxed, the muscle will “roll” from side to side. First experiencing this feeling and then memorizing it we may then make it easier on ourselves to find the sensation again, i.e. relax our muscles.

To learn to feel when a muscle is being stretched we can slowly move in and out of a stretching position and notice the changes in sensation.

By moving slowly we maximize our ability to keep the muscle we are stretching relaxed. By moving in and out of a stretch repeatedly we can learn the sensations that indication stretching and we can also enjoy the sensations that accompany the release of that stretch.

(As an aside, some of us enjoy these sensations more than others.)

A Stable Foundation for Relaxation

So that we can relax and then stretch another requirement is a stable foundation.

If we are standing on firm ground it is usually more easy to relax than if we are on ground that is moving or otherwise unstable.

In our relationship with the earth, if the earth is stable then we can relax. If the earth is unstable then we probably tense up in one way or the other.

Looking at the relationships of bone to bone and bone to muscle within our body:

  • If the two bones two which a muscle is attached are aligned with gravity or otherwise positioned so that they are stable then the muscle can relax.
  • If one bone is moving but the other bone is stable then depending on the type or intent of the movement that muscle can relax or slowly lengthen and then relax.
  • If both bones are unstable then chances are that any muscles that connect those bones will tense up.

To relax muscle (so that we can lengthen or strengthen) we can position our bones so that they are aligned with gravity or otherwise supported. So that we can relax and stretch we can make sure that one of the bones to which a muscle we want to stretch is stable and then we can focus on moving the other bone relative to the fixed bone so that the target muscle is lengthened and stretched.

Weight Control

Something to be aware of and this is further understanding, is that the parts of our body have weight. If one part of the body is stable and the other part is allowed to move, then chances are that the movement of the moving part is being assisted by gravity.

Because of this weight, any muscle that is potentially being stretched may tighten up to resist being stretched too fast or being stretched beyond breaking point. If a muscle is active or engaged, it can’t be stretched. So we need to overcome, prevent or counteract this mechanism.

If we control the rate at which the moving part moves, it may be  easier to avoid this automatic contraction. We can do this by moving slowly and gradually and even repeatedly.

As an example, in a standing forward bend lets assume we want to stretch the back of the thighs-the hamstrings. If we are standing then our legs will be the stationary element and we move our pelvis by tilting it forwards relative to the legs to stretch the hamstrings.

Since the hamstrings attach to the lower leg bones we can focus on making the feet, ankles and shins stable. Our hamstrings then have a fixed point so that they can lengthen. However they also are dealing with the whole weight of the upper body (pelvis, ribcage, head and arms) hinging at the hip joint. Our hamstrings may tighten to prevent being overstretched. However, if we use our hands to support the weight of our upper body, we can give our hamstrings time to relax. We can use blocks if we can’t reach the floor and push our hands down so that we push our ribcage up.

Since our goal is to lengthen the hamstrings we can slowly lower the ribcage under control by slowly bending the elbows. Better yet, we can bend the elbows slightly, notice the hamstrings and feel when they relax, and then bend the elbows some more.

Once we are practiced with this we may find that we can relax our hamstrings and keep them relaxed without using our arms. Instead we slowly relax our hamstrings to the point of complete relaxation.

Once they are relaxed we can then use the weight of the upper body to help lengthen the connective tissue and stretch it.

Using Weight to Stretch

In a standing forward bend if we want to use the weight of our upper body to help lengthen our hamstrings, we can grab our elbows and let our arms, head and ribcage hang down from our waist.

In a seated forward bend, if we want to add weight to stretch our hamstrings we can engage our back muscles to straighten our spine. We can even think of bending it backwards slightly. If we engage our spinal erectors to keep the spine straight (or bend it backwards) then we have the weight of our ribcage and head helping to tilt out pelvis forwards and lengthen our hamstrings.

Better yet, doing the opposite of before, if we lift our hands off of the floor and reach them forwards we can add even more weight to our upper body (instead of taking it off.) But so that our muscles don’t tighten up in defense, we can do this slowly and smoothly so as to keep our hamstrings relaxed. Then the weight of our upper body can be used to help lengthen the connective tissue within them.

If we understand our body and what flexibility is we can go about stretching in an effective manner.

We can position our body and provide the muscles we are stretching with a stable foundation, we can control the parts that move so that the muscle we are stretching can relax and stay relaxed, and prior to that or during that, we can practice activating and relaxing muscle tissue so that we can feel the sensations that are associated with both.

Active Isolated Stretching with Adarsh Williams

I just finished a couple of AIS workshops with Adarsh Williams.
It was my first time to see Adarsh in seven years. We’d first and last met when we where both in Chicago teaching yoga there. Since then he’s gone on to get married, has two children and also has his own yoga space in Palo Alto California. He’s a massage therapist and a certified Ashtangi and a really nice guy. (Not that other Ashtangi’s aren’t nice guys, I just wanted to emphasize that he is and well anyway…)

Active Isolated
Stretching (A.I.S.)

The focus on the two workships I attended was AIS, Active Isolated Stretching.

In a nutshell this technique means knowing which muscle you are stretching, putting your body in the right position (there may be a few options) to stretch that muscle and then using the opposing muscle (called the antagonist) to cause the intended muscle to relax so that it can be stretched. Hold for 2 second then release and repeat. We used exhales to enter and hold each stretch and inhales to relax and recover.

In this article I’ll talk a little about what we learned and did with Adarsh. In my next posting I’ll talk about ways how this technique can be built on or modified. The idea is to present you with a range of options for stretching your body so that you can use the technique that is most helpful or appropriate for you.

Body Basics

First of all some basic points of understanding that can be applied to any sort of muscle stretching or strengthening.

  • A muscle has to be relaxed in order for it to be stretched. Just because a muscle is lengthening doesn’t mean it is being stretched. If a muscle is working against a greater force then it will lengthen even though it is active. To stretch a muscle (or more specifically, to stretch the connective tissue within a muscle) we need to relax it and lengthen it while keeping it relaxed.
  • A muscle has to have one of its ends “fixed” or stable in order for it to relax and lengthen. Think of being on the side of a cliff with little or no support. We would probably freeze in fear. If we know we are safe (on solid ground) then it is easier to relax. We can think of muscle tissue functioning similiarly. When a muscle has a firm foundation (when it “thinks” it is safe) it can relax freely. That means fixing one bone to which a muscle is attached and then moving the other bone relative to the fixed bone.
  • In a lot of cases (but not every case) when we try to stretch a muscle beyond a certain point it contracts to prevent lengthening beyond a point which is safe. (It’s like we might start to “freeze up” the closer we get to the edge of a cliff.) This reaction can be countered by activating the opposing muscle. This is the “Active” part in AIS, using the opposing muscle to prevent the target muscles from contracting.

I should note here that AIS isn’t the be all and the end all of stretching. There are other options and there are other “factors” to be aware of when stretching. You may find that you can keep a target muscle relaxed even without activating its opposite muscle. You might see if you can keep a target muscle relaxed even without activating its opposing muscle(s).

You may find that you can help a muscle to relax first by contracting a muscle and then relaxing it. This is something you can do with your breath.

Finally, just because we are contracting a muscle’s anatogonist doesn’t mean that the agonist will release in all cases. It depends on what we are trying to do. If you’ve ever flexed your biceps (to look cool) with your elbow bent then your biceps and triceps are working at the same time to keep the elbow bent. While you may be focused on tensing your biceps, in this case the opposing muscle, the triceps, also has to activate to keep the elbow in place.

The point is that just because a muscles is active, this doesn’t mean that it’s opposing muscle (or antagonist) will always relax. It depends on what you are trying to do. Luckily, with AIS and someone like Adarsh to teach you most of the homework has already been done for you. The active muscle is used to cause a particular movement and that movement stretches the target muscle. And that by the way is what the “isolated” part in AIS means, isolating a particular muscles to stretch it.


Adarsh presented the AIS material in two sessions. The first session included hips, feet and spine while the second session focused on shoulders, wrist and neck.

Not since I worked with my own teacher, Andrey Lappa, have I encountered such a complete system of both stretching and strengthening the body.

Because we use one group of muscles to stretch another we strengthen and stretch at the same time and the result is balanced flexibility and balanced strength. We even stretched our fingers and toes!

Following is a summary of the exercises that we did. I may have missed some exercises out. I wanted to emphasize here the pairings of muscles and how they where used to stretch each other.

The first set of exercises where for stretching the hamstrings, first with knee bent and afterwards with knee straight. (See video clip below.) We used the psoas and quadriceps as the active muscles in these stretches. (With the knee bent we where more than likely stretching the Adductor magnus which has a similiar action to the hamstrings except that the hamstrings attach to the back of the tibia and fibia while the adductor magnus attaches to the back of the femur. The hamstrings cross the back of the hip and the back of the knee while the adductor magnus only crosses the back of the hip.)

Staying on our backs we then stretched that adductors followed by the abductors. We used these two sets of muscles to stretch each other.

Following that we stretched the psoas by using the abs, glute maximus and hamstrings.

We did twists and side bending for the spine. For twisting we used the obliques and intercostals. Twisting one way we stretch one side (and activate the other) and we balance this by twisting then to the other side. We also used our arms to assist at the end of each twist.

Side bending we used the left side of our abs to stretch the right side and vice versa.

Here is a demo (by me) of the hamstring exercises. The first 40 seconds are me talking about activating the abs. The exercises follow.

In the next post I will talk about and demonstrate how to use the psoas to stretch the hamstrings in more typical yoga posions or asanas.

Here is another demo from off of the web. I’m hoping that Adarsh will publish his own videos on utube.

AIT demo